"Going up." The honor of being called to recite the blessings before and after the Torah reading. Also refers to immigration to Israel, to "make aliyah" to Israel; plural: aliyot. Lit. "Ascent."
The central section of prayers in every service. Also known as the T'filah (prayer) or the Sh'moneh Esreih (18), this compilation of prayers differs from service to service. The daily version inlcudes a number of petitionary prayers, which are not inlcuded on Shabbat.
"Separation." Havdalah is the service on Saturday night that separates the Sabbath from the beginning of the new week. The ritual uses wine, spices, and candles to activate the senses as the n'shamah y'teirah (the additional soul believed to have entered the community on the eve of Shabbat to give the Jewish community a foretaste of the world to come) leaves the body weakened after Shabbat.
"Sanctification;" blessing recited or chanted over wine (or grape juice), emphasizing the holiness of Shabbat and festivals.
Evening prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals.
Seven- or nine-branched candelabra; commonly refers to the nine-branched Hanukkah lamp; plural: menorot.
Afternoon prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals.
The "joy" of Shabbat—refers to refreshments after Shabbat services.
The weekly Torah portion; plural: parashiyot
"Sabbath;" plural: Shabbatot. Refers to the 7th day of Creation. In the Hebrew Bible, Shabbat is juxtaposed to the construction of the Tabernacle that carried the tablets of the Law throughout the period of wandering. The rabbis of the Talmud determined, therefore, that all the categories of work that were required to construct the Tabernacle would cease on the 7th day. There are 39 categories of work as noted in the Talmud. The goal is to cease effecting change in the world through work of any kind and to become "one" with God, community and the environment through prayer, study, community, and rest.
"Sabbath of Repentance;" the Shabbat between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur. A special haftarah is read and traditionally the rabbi gives a sermon related to repentance.
"Shabbat of Remembrance;" the Shabbat immediately preceding Purim, it takes its name from the additional Torah portion--Deuteronomy 25:17-19--read that day--which begins with the word zachor (remember).
Yiddish and Ashkenazic Hebrew pronunciation for Shabbat (Sabbath).
Morning prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals.