The central section of prayers in every service. Also known as the T'filah (prayer) or the Sh'moneh Esreih (18), this compilation of prayers differs from service to service. The daily version inlcudes a number of petitionary prayers, which are not inlcuded on Shabbat.
Evening prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals.
Afternoon prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals.
Morning prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals.
The "joy" of Shabbat—refers to refreshments after Shabbat services.
Container for collecting money for charitable purposes. It is customary to place money in a tzedakah box prior to candlelighting in the home.
"Separation." Havdalah is the service on Saturday night that separates the Sabbath from the beginning of the new week. The ritual uses wine, spices, and candles to activate the senses as the n'shamah y'teirah (the additional soul believed to have entered the community on the eve of Shabbat to give the Jewish community a foretaste of the world to come) leaves the body weakened after Shabbat.
"Sabbath;" plural: Shabbatot. Refers to the 7th day of Creation. In the Hebrew Bible, Shabbat is juxtaposed to the construction of the Tabernacle that carried the tablets of the Law throughout the period of wandering. The rabbis of the Talmud determined, therefore, that all the categories of work that were required to construct the Tabernacle would cease on the 7th day. There are 39 categories of work as noted in the Talmud. The goal is to cease effecting change in the world through work of any kind and to become "one" with God, community and the environment through prayer, study, community, and rest.
"Sanctification;" blessing recited or chanted over wine (or grape juice), emphasizing the holiness of Shabbat and festivals.