"Going up." The honor of being called to recite the blessings before and after the Torah reading. Also refers to immigration to Israel, to "make aliyah" to Israel; plural: aliyot. Lit. "Ascent."
Literally, “standing.” A central prayer of the worship service, often recited privately. A chain of blessings in which the first three and final three are always the same, and the intermediate blessings change based on the day (i.e., Shabbat, weekday, holidays). Also called the Sh’moneh Esreih (literally, “eighteen”) and HaT’fila (literally, “the Prayer”).
Blessing after meals. A series of blessings recited after meals, including blessings that express gratitude for sustenance, the land, Jerusalem, and the positive relationship between God and the Jewish people. There are liturgical variations/additions to Birkat HaMazon for Shabbat, festivals, and weddings.
The tradition of parents blessing their children on Friday nights as the Sabbath begins. The words for the blessing come from the Priestly Benediction in the Torah (Numbers 6:24-26).
A braided egg bread eaten on Shabbat and festivals. Today challah comes in many flavors and varieties, including chocolate chip, gluten free, and vegan. Plural: challot.
Literally, “separation." The Saturday night home ritual that separates the Sabbath from the beginning of the new week. The ritual uses wine, spices, and candles to transition from Sabbath to the weekdays.
“Receiving Shabbat.” A special collection of prayers recited to welcome Shabbat on Friday evening.
"Sanctification;" blessing recited or chanted over wine (or grape juice), emphasizing the holiness of Shabbat and festivals.
Maariv / Arvit
Evening prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals. Derived from the Hebrew word for "evening"
Seven- or nine-branched candelabra; commonly refers to the nine-branched Hanukkah lamp; plural: menorot.
Afternoon prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals.
The blessing recited over bread and any meal that includes bread. This blessing thanks God for bringing forth bread from the earth.
The "joy" of Shabbat—refers to refreshments after Shabbat services.
Torah portion. The five books of the Torah are divided into 54 parashiyot or portions. Each week, Jewish communities read one parashah (singular of parashiyot); in this way, Jewish communities read the entire Torah over the course of a year. Depending on the calendar, some weeks will feature a “double-portion.” The name of each portion is taken from the first few significant words of the portion; plural: parashiyot
"Sabbath;" plural: Shabbatot. Refers to the 7th day of Creation. In the Hebrew Bible, Shabbat is juxtaposed to the construction of the Tabernacle that carried the tablets of the Law throughout the period of wandering. The rabbis of the Talmud determined, therefore, that all the categories of work that were required to construct the Tabernacle would cease on the 7th day. There are 39 categories of work as noted in the Talmud. The goal is to cease effecting change in the world through work of any kind and to become "one" with God, community and the environment through prayer, study, community, and rest.
Literally, “Sabbath of peace.” Shabbat shalom is the customary greeting on Shabbat.
"Sabbath of Repentance;" the Shabbat between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur. A special haftarah is read and traditionally the rabbi gives a sermon related to repentance.
"Shabbat of Remembrance;" the Shabbat immediately preceding Purim, it takes its name from the additional Torah portion--Deuteronomy 25:17-19--read that day--which begins with the word zachor (remember).
Yiddish and Ashkenazic Hebrew pronunciation for Shabbat (Sabbath).
Morning prayer service. Prayed every day, though the content is different on weekdays, Shabbat, and Festivals. Derived from the Hebrew word for "dawn."