Four specific questions asked at the beginning of the Passover seder, the answers to which shape the rest of the retelling of the exodus from Egypt.
(the) Four Questions
From the Greek word meaning "sacrifice by fire", the Holocaust refers to the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany in World War II, including the genocide of six million Jews.
The 49-day period that begins on the second night of Passover and ends on Shavuot.
Hebrew word meaning "catastrophe", referring to the Holocaust.
"Dessert" (Greek); matzah is the official "dessert" of the Passover seder meal. During the seder, the children traditionally "steal"and hide the afikoman, and it must be redeemed by the seder leader.
"Binding." The story in Genesis of the near-sacrifice of Isaac, Abraham’s son, which is read on Rosh HaShanah.
Irrational hatred of Jews.
"Our Father, Our King"/"Our Parent, Our Ruler" A prayer (and song) chanted during the High Holiday period. Describes two simultaneous ways in which people might relate to God: the intimate relationship of a parent and the powerful awe of a ruler.
Foods not eaten during Passover. Chametz typically includes leavened bread or any food that contains wheat, rye, barley, oats, or spelt, unless production has been supervised to ensure that it has not leavened.
A mixture of fruits, nuts, spices and wine eaten as part of the Passover seder. Its color and consistency reminds us of the bricks and mortar used by the Israelite slaves.
"Secular part of the occasion;" during Passover and Sukkot, the intermediate days of the festival.
"Spinning top" in Yiddish (derived from German); "sevivon" in Hebrew; toy used in a children's Hanukkah game.
A special cup used during the Passover seder to symbolize Elijah, who symbolizes the coming of the Messianic age.
The Hebrew month preceding Rosh HaShanah during which one engages in self-reflection and evaluation in preparation for the High Holidays. Traditionally, the shofar is blown each day during the month.
g'mar chatimah tovah
Gamar Chatimah Tovah, g'mar chatima tova, gamar chatimah tova, G'mar Chatima Tova
"A good final sealing;" a High Holiday greeting used between Rosh HaShana and Yom Kippur. Often abbreviated as g'mar tov.
"Money" (Yiddish); often given as a Hanukkah gift; used for playing dreidel.
"Noisemaker" (Hebrew); used to drown out Haman's name during the megillah reading on Purim.
"Telling or narrative;" Jewish text that sets forth the order of the Passover seder; plural: Haggadot.
"encircle, round off, circle around, orbit;" procession of worshippers carrying Torah scrolls that circles the sanctuary; plural hakafot.
Triangle shaped pastries commonly filled with apricot jam or poppyseed spread and eaten on Purim; the shape represents Haman's hat.
Chanukah, Hanukah, Chanuka, Hanuka
"Dedication;" the joyous eight-day celebration during which Jews commemorate the victory of the Macabees over the armies of Syria in 165 B.C.E. and the subsequent liberation and rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem.
Nine-branched candelabra used during Hanukkah – eight branches for each night of the holiday, plus another branch (often taller, central, or more prominently displayed) for the shamash (helper) candle, which is used to light the others.
High Holy Days, the Holidays, the Holy Days
Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur
A green herb or vegetable (parsley, celery, watercress) used as part of the Passover seder to symbolize spring and rebirth.
"All Vows;" prayer recited on the eve of Yom Kippur, the holiest day on the Jewish calendar;
"Pancake" (Yiddish); fried potato pancake often eaten on Hanukkah; plural: latkes.
A date palm frond with myrtle and willow sprigs attached; used in Sukkot rituals.
L’Shanah Tovah Tikateivu
L’shanah tovah tikateivu
"May you be inscribed [in the Book of Life] for a good year);" a greeting offered on the first day of Rosh HaShana.
"Scroll;" One of the five m'gillot (plural) in the Bible: Esther, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentation and Ecclesiastes.
"Wheat money;" money collected prior to Passover and used to assist the needy to celebrate the holiday.
"Bitter;" the bitter herb or vegetable (i.e., horseradish) eaten during the seder to symbolize the bitter plight of the enslaved Israelites.
matza, matzo, matzoh
Unleavened bread eaten during the seder that symbolizes the hurried departure of the Israelites from Egypt. Eating matzah is obligatory only at the seder. During the rest of Pesach, one may abstain from matzah as long as all chametz is avoided; plural: matzot
Seven- or nine-branched candelabra; commonly refers to the nine-branched Hanukkah lamp; plural: menorot.
mishloach manos, shalach monos
"Sending of portions;" baskets of sweets and other foods exchanged among friends on Purim.
"Locking;" the concluding service on Yom Kippur during which it is said that the Gates of Repentance close.
"Lights" that are kindled at the beginning of Shabbat and festivals. Traditionally, women recite this blessing, but men and boys may join in as well or lead the blessing.
Nes Gadol Hayah Sham
"A great miracle happened there;" the first letter of each of these words is found on the dreidel.
"Passover;" a major Jewish spring festival that commemorates the Israelites Exodus from Eqypt more than 3,000 years ago.
Organized attack on Jewish communities in Eastern Europe during the 19th and early 20th century.
"Lots;" holiday that commemorates Queen Esther's actions to save the Jews of Persia from death; marked by a festive reading of the story, contained in the Scroll of Esther.
Humorous play performed as part of the celebration of Purim.
"Order;" ritual dinner that includes the retelling of the story of the Israelite's Exodus from Egypt; plural: sederim.
"Forgiveness;" special penitential prayers recited during Elul and the High Holy Days.
"Eighth day of assembly;" conclusion of Sukkot.
"Sabbath of Repentance;" the Shabbat between Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur. A special haftarah is read and traditionally the rabbi gives a sermon related to repentance.