The Hebrew word "mussar" means moral conduct, instruction, or discipline. The Mussar Movement arose in the 1800’s in Lithuania and encompasses a range of spiritual practices, focusing on the individual’s personal characteristics, traits, or virtues, which are called middot (in Hebrew, singular: a "middah").
In Pirkei Avot 6:6, we read:
The Torah is greater than the priesthood and than royalty, seeing that royalty is acquired through 30 virtues, the priesthood twenty-four, while the Torah is acquired through 48 virtues.
These Jewish virtues or values (in Hebrew middot, the plural form of middah) serve as the basis for the study of a variety of Jewish texts. Perfect for students of all ages, middot can be studied individually, with a study partner, and by families. Whether engaging your family at the Shabbat dinner table or taking some time to study on a Shabbat afternoon, make middot part of your Jewish learning with these helpful study guides.