Yom Kippur Customs and Rituals
Tradition teaches that on Rosh HaShanah the Book of Life is written and on Yom Kippur our decree for New Year is sealed. We are taught that by doing t’shuvah (repentance), t’filah (prayer), and tzedakah (charity), we can have an effect on the severity of the decree. As a result, much of the Yom Kippur liturgy and the prescribed acts for all of the Yamim Noraim are aimed at achieving this goal. Yom Kippur, like Shabbat, is a day when one refrains from work. Leviticus 23:32 describes Yom Kippur as a Shabbat Shabbaton - a sabbath of complete rest. One of the greetings for this day is “G'mar chatimah tovah,” "May you be sealed for a good year ahead.”
Fasting was originally seen as fulfilling the biblical commandment to “practice self- denial.” The Yom Kippur fast enables us, for at least one day each year, to ignore our physical desires, focusing instead on our spiritual needs. Throughout the day, we concentrate on prayer, repentance, and self-improvement before returning to our usual daily routine after the holiday.
According to tradition, all females from age 12 and all males from age 13 must fast. The traditional fast encompasses a full 24-hour period, beginning after the Erev Yom Kippur meal and extending to the following evening. During this time, no eating or drinking is permitted.
Judaism has a deep reverence for life, and though the Yom Kippur fast is of great importance, it is never allowed to jeopardize health. Those too ill to fast (or to fast fully) are prohibited from doing so. Those who need to take medication are allowed, as are pregnant women or women who have just given birth.
In this short essay, Anat Hoffman, Director, Israel Religious Action Center, provides another perspective on the Yom Kippur fast.
The most popular product in Jerusalem on the eve of Yom Kippur is a little bottle of a product named “Kal-Tzom” (Easy-Fast) that contains herbal essences. On the bottle you’ll find a promise made by the manufacturer that this product helps relieve the difficulties of fasting and enables one to experience a convenient Yom Kippur fast.
Many Jerusalemites tend to bless each other on the eve of Yom Kippur by saying, “Have an easy fast” or “Let it (the fast) pass easily.” But before you go looking for this product on the Internet, ask yourself when the fast became the central component of the holy day, over the opportunity to pray and study together as a community.
In reflecting on my own fasts, I think that the most difficult trial on Yom Kippur falls on the parents who have to feed their young children while they fast themselves. It seems that the kids on that day in particular demand from their parents uniquely unnecessary services. I remember one Yom Kippur when my daughter asked me to take off the salt from a particularly beautiful cashew nut, to test some magnificent soup for her to make sure it wasn’t too hot, and to prepare the sweet dessert of honey spread on her slice of honey cake. I believe that the focus on the fast comes from the fact that fasting is physically difficult. When you count the hours, the fast lasts a very long time and is extremely challenging. But if the fast is the disciplined ritual that enables us to engage in a full day of prayer, studying, reflecting and concentrating on texts that bare much wisdom, then the fast becomes easier. This year, let us all have a meaningful fast.
Kol Nidre means “all vows” and is the name given to the special liturgical formulation chanted by Jews solely on Yom Kippur. It is a legal formula for the annulment of vows, which dates back many centuries. The practice of reciting Kol Nidre probably began in about the 9th century C.E. Recited in a mix of Hebrew and Aramaic, the vernacular language of the time, Kol Nidre cancels and annuls all unintended vows made to God during the previous year.
Traditionally, Kol Nidre is chanted three times, though only once in some Reform congregations. The threefold repetition most likely derives from the ancient practice of reciting all official proclamations three times.
Traditionally, many Jews wear white on Yom Kippur. Because white is a symbol of purity and Yom Kippur is a day when we undertake a spiritual cleansing, it is an appropriate color for the occasion. Others interpret white as representative of the white shroud in which Jews are buried, symbolizing our mortality and reminding us of the need for humility and repentance.
Yom Kippur ends with a single, long blast of the shofar. The stirring sound of the shofar at the conclusion of the holiday has many different explanations. One is that the practice recalls the giving of the Torah at Sinai (when the shofar also was blown). Another is that the shofar signals the triumph of Israel over its sins for another year and heralds the possible coming of the messianic age.
In the Congregation
The heart of the Yom Kippur experience is congregational worship. It is a mitzvah to attend all the services on Yom Kippur, from Kol Nidre in the evening, throughout the next day, ending with N’ilah (concluding services) and the sounding of the shofar. A memorial service (Yizkor) is included on Yom Kippur, and Havdalah (a service of separation) is recited at the end of the day, following the sounding of the shofar. A joyous “break-the-fast” meal is served at the conclusion of services, either at the congregation or at home.
The Erev Yom Kippur service is called Kol Nidre, meaning “all vows,” and refers to the special liturgical formulation chanted by Jews solely on Yom Kippur. It is a legal formula for the annulment of vows, which dates back many centuries. The practice of reciting Kol Nidre probably began in about the 9th century C.E. Recited in a mix of Hebrew and Aramaic, the vernacular language of the time, Kol Nidre cancels and annuls all unintended vows made during the previous year. Traditionally, Kol Nidre is chanted three times, though only once in some Reform congregations. In many settings, the haunting melody is played on a violin, viola or cello. The threefold repetition most likely derives from the ancient practice of reciting all official proclamations three times. (Syme 25) During the chanting of Kol Nidre, the Torah scrolls are held by leaders of the community as the congregation stands together in silence.
Traditionally, in addition to Erev Yom Kippur, the entirety of the next day is spent in synagogue. The liturgy for the day of Yom Kippur includes powerful readings from the Torah, the core of Jewish teaching and practice, and Yizkor, a memorial service to remember our loved ones who have died and, perhaps, to draw from their memories the inspiration to be the best of what we can yet be.
The Days of Awe are about more than confessing our sins. They are an opportunity to envision our lives and our communities if we each become a little more caring with each passing year. On Yom Kippur morning, we read from the Torah portion entitled Nitzavim, in which we learn that meaningful Jewish lives are not too hard for us and not too far away—if we are willing to choose a life of caring for each other. We also recite the Al Cheit, a prayer that recounts our sins: gossip, arrogance, exploiting the weak, and all the other missteps we took during the year just ended. The High Holidays are a time for t’shuvah, which is usually understood to mean repentance. But t’shuvah is much more than repentance. Its literal meaning is return and, indeed, t’shuvah is a return forward to something holy inside us that hasn’t yet reached fruition, a return to the goodness and the caring that could have been and still can be. T’shuvah is our search to find the potential for good and for holiness that has been within us all along but somehow became hidden in the hustle and bustle of everyday life.
Beginning at sundown prior to Kol Nidre, it is customary to render ourselves less comfortable through a variety of means, including fasting. Therefore, a family meal, known as se’udah mafseket (the concluding meal before the fast) traditionally is eaten before sundown, with the candle lighting happening at the end of the meal. This process is a way to mark the entree of Yom Kippur into the home and, with that blessing, the fast begins.
Tradition holds that acts of tzedakah are key components to our observance of Yom Kippur. In many synagogues, a fundraising appeal coincides with the High Holidays. Many Jews make tzedakah a part of their Shabbat ritual, depositing a few dollars in a tzedakah box prior to the beginning of Shabbat. This can also be done as part of the ritual prior to the meal eaten before Kol Nidre. To make this even more special, the Days of Awe can be a time to tally the funds set aside each week during the prior year and determine to which causes they will be donated.
By reciting prayers in a synagogue on Yom Kippur we atone for transgressions against God. For wrongs committed against other people, it has become customary to seek out friends and relatives whom we have wronged during the year and to ask their forgiveness before Yom Kippur begins. The holiday is a time when families should be at peace, and gives us a yearly opportunity to put aside past hurts and create a new beginning.
It also is customary on Yom Kippur to perpetuate the memory of loved ones. To do so, many Jews visit the cemetery the day before Yom Kippur and kindle 24-hour yahrzeit candles in memory loved ones who have died (learn more about yahrzeit candles and other Jewish mourning rituals). Yahrzeit candles are lit prior to the lighting of the holiday candles. During the Middle Ages, this custom was seen as a means of atonement for the dead. Today, however, it is a beautiful expression of tribute and remembrance.