Rabbi Richard S. Sarason, Ph.D.
Dr. Sarason is Professor of Rabbinic Literature and Thought and the Associate Editor of the Hebrew Union College Annual. He was ordained at HUC-JIR.
Yom Kippur is the only day in the traditional Jewish liturgical year to have five services: in addition to the usual four shared with Shabbatot, Festivals, and Rosh Hashanah (evening, morning, Musaf, and afternoon1), Yom Kippur has a concluding service called
Memorialization of deceased relatives and of Jewish martyrs has figured in the liturgical observances of Yom Kippur since the massacre of approximately 8,000 Rhineland Jews at the time of the First Crusade (1096).
More than any other biblical mo’ed (appointed time), Yom Kippur is pre-eminently a Temple-based observance. True, all Israelites were to fast on that day, but the ritual described in Leviticus 16 is exclusively focused on the Temple. It is about the